Why we can't drink water safer and faster outdoor?
When you are hiking or camping in the wild, you will have the problem of drinking water. Generally, you can drink river spring water, but these waters may not be safe. Some may cause malaria and even dehydration. To solve water resources is a key issue to consider when you survive in the wild. how do you deal with drinking water when camping or hiking in the wild?
Wild water usually comes from rivers, lakes, streams or other undeveloped water sources, usually containing visible particles such as silt, silt, debris, humic acid and tannic acid (from decaying plant material), giving the water a brown color. Some water sources look very clear (meaning no visible particles), but the risks remain.
What is a pathogen?
Pathogens are microbial pathogens, often referred to as bacteria. It is a very broad category that includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
Which pathogens should I worry about?
There are four waterborne pathogens that require attention: protozoa, bacteria, viruses, and multicellular parasites.
When should I handle water?
Treating water is always worthwhile. You can't verify the quality of the water from an undeveloped or suspicious source at all. Sometimes, you have a good reason to believe that water quality has been compromised, and the significance of water treatment is self-evident. No matter what the situation is, the inconvenience of dealing with water is never worth mentioned compared with the trouble caused by the disease. Treating water is like fastening a seat belt: always preparing for the unknown and the worst.
Which is the best way to treat the wild water? How could I filter water in the wild?
From pump water filters to ultraviolet light, there are many choices on the market, and today's advanced technology is very gratifying. But depending on the environment and water quality you will face, each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses. This will be divided into two parts to help you understand how each type of water treatment works - so that you can make the judgment that is best for you.
The first part: pump water filter, gravity water filter, and some small personal devices such as water bottles, squeeze/drinking water filters and so on. The second part is about: UV, chemical filters, combination treatment and boiling disinfection.
Mini water filter VS water purifier
First, we need to know that there are important differences between mini water filters and water purifiers. Mini water filters are commonly used to remove protozoan parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia and bacteria. In general, micro-filters are sufficient to meet the needs of field travelers in the United States and Canada. By definition, a water purifier can eliminate a virus. International travelers and those who reserve emergency life-saving kits need to be equipped with water purifiers because of the high risk of viral infection in areas where they are contaminated. The benefit of using a purifying filter is that you can drink water instantly, with almost no waiting, and is almost the safest way to clean water. The disadvantage is that the price is expensive, rarely less than 60 dollars, the cost is high in the later stage, and the filter core also needs to spend money. Volume, weight, almost 1 lbs. It also needs frequent maintenance when used, and it is easy to block.
Three ways of field water treatment
In fact, no places those we can reach have no pollution. Even if there is no pollution, it does not mean that there are no viruses, bacteria, or various harmful substances in the water. It is still best to be able to handle it if conditions permit.
The way of water treatment mainly includes boil, water purification drugs, and filters.
Boil: This is the most practical and effective means. The downside is that it wastes fuel and is time consuming.
Use water purification tablets: This is chemically cleaned, mostly chlorine and iodine. The mainstream of the market is iodine. The preservation of iodine tablets needs to be protected from light and moisture. They are cheap, convenient and lightweight. It usually takes about 20 minutes to drink after adding water purification tablets. The disadvantage is that there is a strange smell. This can be solved by post-processing, such as adding some pills for deodorization or adding some fruit. Second, there is a major virus that cannot be removed, cryptosporidium, which is probably the most common parasite in the water. The third is prone to allergies and will chemically react with certain foods or utensils.
In general, water purification tablets have a very good market because of their lightweight, low cost, and small size. Attention should be paid that you should wait at least 20 minutes and do not use these tablets for more than 1 week.
There are several simple and feasible methods for purifying and disinfecting the water source found.
First, the infiltration method: When there is floating foreign matter in the water source you find or the water is turbid, you can dig a hole about 50-80 cm deep and about 1 meter in diameter from the water source 3 to 5 meters. The water naturally seeps out from the gaps of sand, stone, and soil. Then, gently remove the water that has leaked out into a water container such as a box or a pot. Note: Do not stir up the sediment at the bottom of the pit. Keep the water clean and clean.
Second, the filtration method: When you find the water source muddy and turbid, there are foreign bodies floating and there are microbes or worms and water larvae, etc., the environment around the water source is not suitable for digging pits, you can find a plastic bag (good quality, not easy to break Puncture the small eyes at the bottom, or use cotton single gloves, handkerchiefs, socks, sleeves, trouser legs, etc., or use a Coke bottle, remove the bottom of the bottle and invert it, then use a knife to pull the cap out of several holes. Then, from bottom to top, fill in 5 to 4 cm thick soil-free clean fine sand, charcoal powder, fine sand, charcoal powder, fine sand 5 to 7 layers, press firmly, and slowly pour the unclean water. In a self-made simple filter, when there is water overflow under the filter, the filtered clean water can be collected with a basin or a kettle. If you are not satisfied with the filtered water quality, you should make a simple filter to filter the filtered water again, you can be satisfied.
Third, the precipitation method
Collect the water found in a water container such as a pot or pot, add a small amount of alum or kapok leaves (smashed), cactus (smashed), eucalyptus bark (smashed), stir in water and precipitate for 30 minutes. Gently pick up the upper layer of water, do not stir up the turbidity that has settled, so that you can get clean water.
In general, in addition to spring water and well water (underground deepwater wells) can be directly consumed, whether it is river water, lake water, stream water, snow water, rainwater, dew, etc., or water obtained by infiltration, filtration, precipitation, it is best It should be disinfected before drinking. So, how to disinfect? The method is as follows:
1. Put the water-purifying tablets into the water storage container, stir and shake, let stand for a few minutes, then drink, and fill them into the pot for storage. Under normal circumstances, one tablet can disinfect 1 liter of water, and if it is turbid, 2 tablets can be used. At present, this method is used to disinfect water in the wild army.
2. If there is no water-purifying tablet, you can use the medical iodine that you carry to replace the water-purifying tablets to disinfect the water. In the purified water, 3-4 drops of iodine are dripped per liter. If the water is turbid, the iodine should be doubled. After shaking and shaking, the rest time should be longer. After 20 to 30 minutes, you can drink or spare.
3. the use of chlorite, that is, bleach can also play a disinfecting role. In the purified water, three or four drops of bleach are added per liter of water, and the water turbidity is doubled. After shaking, it is allowed to stand for 30 minutes, and it can be drunk or spared. Just the smell of some bleach in the water, be careful not to drink the turbidity of the precipitate together.
4. If the above disinfectant drugs are not available, it is good to carry the vinegar (white vinegar) used in the wild, and you can also disinfect the water. Pour some vinegar juice into the purified water, stir well, and let stand for 30 minutes before drinking. Just the smell of some vinegar in the water.
5. In the case of altitude is not too high (2500 meters below sea level) and there are fires, boiling water for 5 minutes, is also a good way to disinfect the water, and is simple and practical. In the plain outings or picnics, this method is used to disinfect rivers, lakes, streams, rain, dew, and snow to ensure the demand for drinking water and cooking.
6. If you are looking for saltwater, use the pepper and the water to cook together. Although you can't get rid of the original bitterness, you can prevent abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. If there are heavy metal salts or toxic minerals in the water, use strong tea and water to cook, and the last sediment should not be drunk.
At present, RUNACC mini water filter (click to buy) is very practical in the wild. With a ball pump, it solves the problem of water absorption of other water filter straws. It can filter Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, salmonella typhi, cholera bacteria, Legionella, and other pathogenic bacteria. So the water can be drunk after being filtered, which is sufficient for the needs of travelers in the United States and Canada. Viruses are very rarely found in North America or when traveling to foreign cities.
In addition, it is necessary to remind friends that in the case of shortage of drinking water, it is necessary to drink water reasonably and not to drink for a moment of thirst. In addition, in the field work or adventure, drinking water should also be scientific. If you drink enough at a time, the body will excrete excess water after absorption, which will waste a lot of water. If you drink water, drink only one or two at a time, then swallow it slowly with a large mouth. After a while, feeling a little more thirsty and take a slow breath, so that you can repeat the drinking water so that the body will drink it. The water is fully absorbed, which can also solve the dryness of the throat of the tongue.